# Convert the number 244 into binary options

During decoding, the following options are supported: Otherwise it ignores them. No options are supported during encoding. Here is a small example to clarify the relation between the field specifiers and the arguments: The type may be any one of the following characters: Every character is taken as modulo i. If arg has fewer than count bytes, then additional zero bytes are used to pad out the field. If arg is longer than the specified length, the extra characters will be ignored.

If count is omitted, then one character will be formatted. Contrast these last two with: A This form is the same as a except that spaces are used for padding instead of nulls. Arg must contain a sequence of 1 and 0 characters. The resulting bytes are emitted in first to last order with the bits being formatted in low-to-high order within each byte. If arg has fewer than count digits, then zeros will be used for the remaining bits.

If arg has more than the specified number of digits, the extra digits will be ignored. If count is omitted, then one digit will be formatted. If the number of bits formatted does not end at a byte boundary, the remaining bits of the last byte will be zeros. B This form is the same as b except that the bits are stored in high-to-low order within each byte.

H Stores a string of count hexadecimal digits in high-to-low within each byte in the output string. The resulting bytes are emitted in first to last order with the hex digits being formatted in high-to-low order within each byte. If arg has fewer than count digits, then zeros will be used for the remaining digits.

If the number of digits formatted does not end at a byte boundary, the remaining bits of the last byte will be zeros. This is seldom required. If no count is specified, then arg must consist of an integer value. If count is specified, arg must consist of a list containing at least that many integers. The low-order 8 bits of each integer are stored as a one-byte value at the cursor position. If the number of elements in the list is greater than count , then the extra elements are ignored.

The low-order bits of each integer are stored as a two-byte value at the cursor position with the least significant byte stored first. S This form is the same as s except that it stores one or more bit integers in big-endian byte order in the output string.

The low-order bits of each integer are stored as a four-byte value at the cursor position with the least significant byte stored first. The low-order bits of each integer are stored as an eight-byte value at the cursor position with the least significant byte stored first.

For example, binary format w will return the string HelloTcl W This form is the same as w except that it stores one or more one or more bit integers in big-endian byte order in the output string. For example, binary format Wc will return the string BigEndian m This form mnemonically the mirror of w is the same as w and W except that it stores the bit integers in the output string in the native byte order of the machine where the Tcl script is running.

This representation is not portable across architectures, so it should not be used to communicate floating point numbers across the network. The size of a floating point number may vary across architectures, so the number of bytes that are generated may vary. Because Tcl uses double-precision floating point numbers internally, there may be some loss of precision in the conversion to single-precision.

This conversion only produces meaningful output when used on machines which use the IEEE floating point representation very common, but not universal. R This form is the same as r except that it stores the single-precision floating point numbers in big-endian order. Q This form is the same as q except that it stores the double-precision floating point numbers in big-endian order.

If count is not specified, stores one null byte. This type does not consume an argument. X Moves the cursor back count bytes in the output string. If count is omitted then the cursor is moved back one byte. Moves the cursor to the absolute location in the output string specified by count.

Position 0 refers to the first byte in the output string. If count refers to a position beyond the last byte stored so far, then null bytes will be placed in the uninitialized locations and the cursor will be placed at the specified location. If count is omitted, then an error will be generated.

A similar example as with binary format should explain the relation between field specifiers and arguments in case of the binary scan subcommand: Thus the following will occur: For example, to read an unsigned short value: If count is omitted, then one byte will be scanned. A This form is the same as a , except trailing blanks and nulls are stripped from the scanned value before it is stored in the variable.

The data bytes are scanned in first to last order with the bits being taken in low-to-high order within each byte. Any extra bits in the last byte are ignored. If count is omitted, then one bit will be scanned. B This form is the same as b , except the bits are taken in high-to-low order within each byte. H The data is turned into a string of count hexadecimal digits in high-to-low order represented as a sequence of characters in the set "abcdef".

The data bytes are scanned in first to last order with the hex digits being taken in high-to-low order within each byte. If count is omitted, then one hex digit will be scanned. If count is omitted, then one 8-bit integer will be scanned. Note that the integers returned are signed, but they can be converted to unsigned 8-bit quantities using an expression like: The integers are stored in the corresponding variable as a list. If count is omitted, then one bit integer will be scanned.

Note that the integers returned are signed, but they can be converted to unsigned bit quantities using an expression like: It is otherwise identical to s and S. It is otherwise identical to i and I.

W This form is the same as w except that the data is interpreted as count bit signed integers represented in big-endian byte order.

It is otherwise identical to w and W. The floating point numbers are stored in the corresponding variable as a list. The major difference between supported file formats in Stata versions is that version 7. The abbreviate function is used to trim variable names to the permitted length. A warning is given if this is needed and it is an error for the abbreviated names not to be unique. Each version of Stata is claimed to be able to read all earlier formats.

The columns in the data frame become variables in the Stata data set. Missing values are handled correctly. There are four options for handling factors.

This last used to be the only available method and is provided largely for backwards compatibility. If the "datalabel" attribute contains a string, it is written out as the dataset label otherwise the dataset label is "Written by R. This attribute should contain a list where each element is string vector of length three. The second element contains the characeristic name.